Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with increased urinary ACE activity, blood pressure values, and carotidal-femoral pulse wave velocity

Nenhuma Miniatura disponível
Cruz, Nayara Azinheira Nobrega [UNIFESP]
Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves [UNIFESP]
Fernandes, Fernanda Barrinha
Zaniqueli, Divanei dos Anjos
Oliosa, Polyana Romano
Mill, José Geraldo
Casarini, Dulce Elena [UNIFSP]
Título da Revista
ISSN da Revista
Título de Volume
This study aimed to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in children and adolescents to investigate their relationship with dyslipidemia and other cardiometabolic alterations. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP), and fasting lipid concentrations were taken from 360 subjects. Categorization was done according to the levels of each lipoprotein (total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C) into three groups: normolipidemic (NL), borderline (BL), and dyslipidemic (DL). Enzymatic activity in urine was measured using the substrates Z-FHL-OH and hippuryl-HL-OH (h-HL-OH) and the ACE activity ratio (Z-FHL-OH/h-HL-OH) was calculated. Dyslipidemic levels of HDL-C, TG, and LDL-C were observed in 23%, 9%, and 3% of the participants, respectively, and were more frequent in obese children (Chi-square, p < 0.001). ACE activity ratio was augmented in BL(HDL-C) when compared to NL(HDL-C) (5.06 vs. 2.39, p < 0.01), in DL(LDL-C) in comparison to BL(LDL-C) and NL(LDL-C) (8.7 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.0, p < 0.01), and in DL(non-HDL-C) than in BL(non-HDL-C) and in NL(non-HDL-C) (6.3 vs. 2.1 vs. 2.9, p = 0.02). The groups with impaired HDL-C and TG levels presented an increased diastolic BP percentile, and a higher systolic BP percentile was observed in BL(TG) and DL(TG). The carotidal-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was higher in the groups with DL levels of TG and LDL-C than in NL groups. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with higher cfPWV. No direct impact of the ACE activity on BP values was observed in this cohort, however, there was an association between hyperlipidemia and ACE upregulation which can trigger mechanisms driving to early onset of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Graphical abstract exemplifying the cohort, categorization of subjects into the groups NL normolipidemic, BL borderline, DL dyslipidemic, methods, and main findings. Pediatric dyslipidemia was consistent with dyslipidemia secondary to obesity (DSO), associated with higher urinary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity ratio, BP blood pressure values, and carotidal-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV).