Association between mental disorders and adherence to antiretroviral treatment in health facilities in two Mozambican provinces in 2018: a cross-sectional study

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2023-04-20
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Mandlate, Flavio Machado [UNIFESP]
Greene, M. Claire
Pereira, Luis F.
Gouveia,Maria Lidia [UNIFESP]
Mari, Jair Jesus [UNIFESP]
Cournos, Francine
Duarte, Cristiane S.
Oquendo, Maria A.
Mello, Marcelo Feijó [UNIFESP]
Wainberg, Milton L.
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Introduction: Lower adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been found among people with HIV (PWH) who have comorbid mental disorders like depression and alcohol use in Sub-Saharan African. However, there has been less exploration with regards to other mental disorders. Methods: This study assessed the association of multiple mental disorders and adherence to ART based on the data from primary/tertiary health care facilities in Maputo and Nampula, Mozambique. We administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus 4.0.0 adapted for use in Mozambique to assess mental conditions, and a 3-item self-report to measure ART adherence. Results: 395 HIV-positive (self-report) participants on ART, with an average age of 36.7 years (SD = 9.8), and 30.4% were male. The most common mental disorders were major depressive disorder (27.34%) followed by psychosis (22.03%), suicidal ideation/behavior (15.44%), and alcohol-use disorder (8.35%). Higher odds of missing at least one dose in the last 30 days (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.10) were found in participants with any mental disorder compared to those without a mental disorder. The highest levels of non-adherence were observed among those with drug use disorders and panic disorder. Conclusions: In Mozambique, PWH with any co-occurring mental conditions had a lower probability of ART adherence. Integrating comprehensive mental health assessment and treatment and ART adherence interventions tailored to PWH with co-occurring mental disorders is necessary to attain optimal ART adherence and reach the UNAIDS ART target.
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