Skin diseases in indigenous population: retrospective epidemiological study at Xingu Indigenous Park (XIP) and review of the literature

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Wu, Jenifer S. A. [UNIFESP]
Florian, Marcos C. [UNIFESP]
Rodrigues, Douglas A. [UNIFESP]
Tomimori, Jane [UNIFESP]
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BackgroundSkin diseases among indigenous populations have been poorly described in the literature. Risk factors linked to habits, cultural practices, genetics, and environmental characteristics can influence the frequency and clinical presentation of these diseases. MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study conducted through a review of dermatological medical records. Data were obtained over three visits to Xingu Indigenous Park (XIP). Main dermatoses were compared by gender, age, ethnicity, and village. Diseases were classified into four groups: infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and other. ResultsOf the 398 patients included in the study, 54.2% were female. The participants ranged in age from 1 to 75 years (median, 10 years). The predominant ethnic group was Caiabi (49.7%), followed by Ikpeng (14.3%) and Kamaiura (10.0%). The primary village studied was Diauarum, followed by Moigu and Morena. Infectious dermatoses were the most frequent (43.8%), followed by inflammatory (33.7%), neoplastic (15.5%), and other skin diseases (7.0%). Infectious diseases were predominant in Caiabi and Kamaiura Indians, whereas inflammatory skin diseases were more frequent in Ikpeng and Juruna populations. We also observed a high frequency of malignancy in the Ikpeng and Trumai ethnic groups. Infectious skin diseases, except for fungal infections, were frequent in younger age groups. This trend was not replicated for neoplastic skin diseases. Uncommon dermatoses such as Heck's disease, lichen striatus, and aquagenic urticaria were also observed. Jorge Lobo's disease was not included in this analysis. ConclusionImproved knowledge of the distribution of common dermatoses among different ethnic groups and villages in XIP will aid in the prevention of skin infections and skin cancer. This improved knowledge will also allow the development of skin disease guidelines that can help local indigenous health professionals.
International Journal Of Dermatology. Hoboken, v. 56, n. 12, p. 1414-1420, 2017.