Double-diabetes in a real-world sample of 2711 individuals: associated with insulin treatment or part of the heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes?

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Giuffrida, Fernando M. A.
Bulcao, Caroline
Cobas, Roberta A.
Negrato, Carlos Antonio
Gomes, Marilia B.
Dib, Sergio Atala [UNIFESP]
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Background: Double diabetes (DD) describes both individuals with obesity upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and those who have gained weight during follow-up, although cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are not well understood in this group. We aim to evaluate the frequency of DD in a real-world type 1 diabetes sample and the interaction of insulin treatment with CVRF. Methods: Multicentre cross-sectional study of 2711 individuals with clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes from secondary diabetes centres in 20 Brazilian cities. Results: Patients with diabetes duration <5 and >= 5 years had similar frequency of overweight (20.4 vs. 25 %) and obesity, (9.8 vs. 6.1 %), p 0.28 for trend. Insulin dose (U/kg/day) was lower in obese individuals compared to normal BMI, with mean (95 % CI) 0.72 (0.62-0.83) vs. 0.88 (0.84-0.92) U/kg/day for diabetes duration < 5 years and 0.84 (0.77-0.92) vs. 0.99 (0.97-1.01) U/kg/day for duration >= 5 years. Obese individuals had lower HDL (47.5 vs. 54.4 mg/dL) and higher non-HDL-cholesterol (134.5 vs. 115.2 mg/dL) than lean ones only among those with more than 5 years of diabetes. Conclusions: Lower insulin doses in obese individuals point to a role of clinical heterogeneity in insulin deficiency rather than normal progression of type 1 diabetes. Early obesity in type 1 diabetes is associated to lower HDL-cholesterol and higher number of CVRF. These data suggest a broad landscape of pathophysiological phenomena in double diabetes, rather than simple progression of a homogeneous clinical entity.
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. London, v. 8, p. -, 2016.