Downhill exercise-induced changes in gene expression related with macrophage polarization and myogenic cells in the triceps long head of rats

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Minari, André Luis Araújo [UNIFESP]
Oyama, Lila Missae [UNIFESP]
Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli dos [UNIFESP]
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Macrophages are one of the most heterogenic immune cells involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. After skeletal muscle damage, M1 phenotypes exhibit pro-inflammatory reaction. in a later stage, they are converted to M2 phenotypes with anti-inflammatory properties. To study when gene expressions of macrophage polarization are changed after damage induced by downhill exercise to exhaustion is the objective of this paper. Before (CTRL) and 0 h (G0), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48) and 72 h (G72) after 18 bouts of downhill exercise, the animals were euthanised, and the triceps were dissected. We measured gene expression of macrophages (CD68 and CD163), myogenic cells (MyoD and myogenin) and quantified cytokine secretion (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)). the CD68 expression was lower in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.005) while CD163 was higher in G48 compared with G24 (P = 0.04). the MyoD expression was higher in G72 compared with G0 (P = 0.04). the myogenin expression was lower in G24 compared with CTRL (P = 0.01) and restored in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.007). the TNF-alpha was significantly higher at all times after 24 h (all compared with CTRL, with P = 0.03). the CD68 and CD163 expressions behaved distinctly after exercise, which indicates macrophage polarization between 24 and 48 h. the distinct expression of myogenin, concomitantly with MyoD elevation in G72, indicates that myogenic cell differentiation and the significant change of TNF-alpha level show an important role of this cytokine in these processes.
Inflammation. New York: Springer/plenum Publishers, v. 38, n. 1, p. 209-217, 2015.