Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: An evaluation

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Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz [UNIFESP]
van de Watering, F. C. J.
Nejadnik, M. R.
Crovace, Murilo Camuri
Zanotto, Edgar Dutra
Wolke, J. G. C.
Jansen, J. A.
van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.
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Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known for their unique ability to bond to living bone. Consequently, the incorporation of BGs into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was hypothesized to be a feasible approach to improve the biological performance of CPC. Previously, it has been demonstrated that BGs can successfully be introduced into CPC, with or without poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles. Although an in vitro physicochemical study on the introduction of BG into CPC was encouraging, the biocompatibility and in vivo bone response to these formulations are still unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo performance of BG supplemented CPC, either pure or supplemented with PLGA microparticles, via both ectopic and orthotopic implantation models in rats. Pre-set scaffolds in four different formulations (1: CPC; 2: CPC/BG; 3: CPC/PLGA; and 4: CPC/PLGA/BG) were implanted subcutaneously and into femoral condyle defects of rats for 2 and 6 weeks. Upon ectopic implantation, incorporation of BG into CPC improved the soft tissue response by improving capsule and interface quality. Additionally, the incorporation of BG into CPC and CPC/PLGA showed 1.8- and 4.7-fold higher degradation and 2.2- and 1.3-fold higher bone formation in a femoral condyle defect in rats compared to pure CPC and CPC/PLGA, respectively. Consequently, these results highlight the potential of BG to be used as an additive to CPC to improve the biological performance for bone regeneration applications. Nevertheless, further confirmation is necessary regarding long-term in vivo studies, which also have to be performed under compromised wound-healing conditions. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acta Biomaterialia. Oxford: Elsevier B.V., v. 9, n. 3, p. 5728-5739, 2013.