Increased resistance to first-line agents among bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Latin America: time for local guidelines?

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Andrade, Soraya Sgambatti [UNIFESP]
Sader, Helio Silva [UNIFESP]
Jones, Ronald N
Pereira, Andrea dos Santos [UNIFESP]
Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos [UNIFESP]
Gales, Ana Cristina [UNIFESP]
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Emerging resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) is an increasing problem in specific regions, limiting therapeutic options. As part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, a total of 611 isolates were collected in 2003 from patients with CA-UTI presenting at Latin American medical centers. Each strain was tested in a central laboratory using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methods with appropriate controls. Escherichia coli was the leading pathogen (66%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (7%), Proteus mirabilis (6.4%), Enterococcus spp. (5.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.6%). Surprisingly high resistance rates were recorded for E. coli against first-line orally administered agents for CA-UTI, such as ampicillin (53.6%), TMP/SMX (40.4%), ciprofloxacin (21.6%), and gatifloxacin (17.1%). Decreased susceptibility rates to TMP/SMX and ciprofloxacin were also documented for Klebsiella spp. (79.1 and 81.4%, respectively), and P. mirabilis (71.8 and 84.6%, respectively). For Enterococcus spp., susceptibility rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin were 88.2, 85.3, 55.9, and 97.1%, respectively. High-level resistance to gentamicin was detected in 24% of Enterococcus spp. Bacteria isolated from patients with CA-UTI in Latin America showed limited susceptibility to orally administered antimicrobials, especially for TMP/SMX and fluoroquinolones. Our results highlight the need for developing specific CA-UTI guidelines in geographic regions where elevated resistance to new and old compounds may influence prescribing decisions.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, v. 101, n. 7, p. 741-748, 2006.