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Title: Retrovirus infections in a sample of injecting drug users in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil: prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, and co-infection with HTLV-I/II
Authors: Guimaraes, M. L.
Bastos, F. I.
Telles, P. R.
Galvao-Castro, B.
Diaz, R. S.
Bongertz, V
Morgado, M. G.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Keywords: injecting drug users
HIV/HTLV co-infection
sensitive/less sensitive dual testing strategy for HIV infection
Issue Date: 1-May-2001
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Journal of Clinical Virology. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V., v. 21, n. 2, p. 143-151, 2001.
Abstract: Background: Retrovirus infections among injecting drug users (IDUs), a core at-risk population for both HIV-1 and HTLV-I/II infections in Brazil, were assessed within an ongoing cooperative research. Objective: the study assessed the seroprevalences of HIV-1 and HTLV-I/II infections, as well as the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in a sample of IDUs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An attempt to evaluate HIV incidence was carried out using a dual 'sensitive/less sensitive' testing strategy. Study design: Cross-sectional evaluation of 175 IDUs. Serostatus for HIV-1 and HTLV-I,II were established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and confirmed by western blot. the dual testing strategy aimed to estimate HIV-1 incidence rates. Differentiation between HTLV-I and -II was performed by western blot. DNA samples were polymerase chain reaction amplified by a nested protocol, and HIV-1 subtyping was determined by heteroduplex mobility assay. Results: Forty-six and 29 samples were found to be, respectively, positive for HIV-1 and HTLV-I/II, 15 of them co-infected by both viruses. Among HTLV-I/II-infected patients, 75.9% were infected by HTLV-I. Thirty-one HIV samples were identified as B subtype, with seven of them showing the typical 'Brazilian B' pattern in the gp120 V3 loop, and ten were identified as F subtype. the use of less sensitive assays for HIV infection wrongly identified a deeply immunocompromised patient as an incident case. Conclusion: Moderately high seroprevalences were found for both HIV-1 and HTLV-I/II infections, HIV-1/HTLV-I co-infections being of special concern. A non-statistically significant higher prevalence of F subtype was observed, when compared with the distribution of F/B subtypes among Brazilian patients from other exposure categories. No recent HIV-1 infections were detected, but a limitation of the 'sensitive/less-sensitive' testing strategy was made evident. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1386-6532
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