Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease in the intensive care unit setting: epidemiology, clinical course and outcome

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Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues [UNIFESP]
Edmond, Michael B.
Wenzel, Richard P.
Bearman, Gonzalo M. L.
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Background: Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is a serious nosocomial infection, however few studies have assessed CDAD outcome in the intensive care unit (ICU). We evaluated the epidemiology, clinical course and outcome of hospital-acquired CDAD in the critical care setting.Methods: We performed a historical cohort study on 58 adults with a positive C. difficile cytotoxin assay result occurring in intensive care units.Results: Sixty-two percent of patients had concurrent infections, 50% of which were bloodstream infections. the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials prior to CDAD were anti-anaerobic agents (60.3%). Septic shock occurred in 32.8% of CDAD patients. the in-hospital mortality was 27.6%. Univariate analysis revealed that SOFA score, at least one organ failure and age were predictors of mortality. Charlson score >= 3, gender, concurrent infection, and number of days with diarrhea before a positive C. difficile toxin assay were not significant predictors of mortality on univariate analysis. Independent predictors for death were SOFA score at infection onset ( per 1-point increment, OR 1.40; CI95 1.13 - 1.75) and age ( per 1-year increment, OR 1.10; CI95 1.02-1.19).Conclusion: in ICU patients with CDAD, advanced age and increased severity of illness at the onset of infection, as measured by the SOFA score, are independent predictors of death.
Bmc Infectious Diseases. London: Biomed Central Ltd, v. 7, 6 p., 2007.