Pediatric hospital admissions from influenza A (H1N1) in Brazil: effects of the 2010 vaccination campaign

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Marcos, Ana Carolina Cavalcanti [UNIFESP]
Pelissoni, Fernanda D'angelo Monteiro [UNIFESP]
Cunegundes, Kelly Simone Almeida [UNIFESP]
Abramczyk, Marcelo Luiz [UNIFESP]
Bellei, Nancy Cristina Junqueira [UNIFESP]
Sanches, Nivea Aparecida Pissaia [UNIFESP]
De Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel [UNIFESP]
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lIn 2009, the influenza A (H1N1) virus spread rapidly around the world, causing the first pandemic of the 21st Century. In 2010, there was a vaccination campaign against this new virus subtype to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease in some countries, including Brazil. Herein, we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients under 19 years of age who were hospitalized with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection in 2009 and 2010. We retrospectively reviewed files from the pediatric patients who were admitted to a university hospital with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection in 2009 and 2010. There were 37 hospitalized patients with influenza A (H1N1) in 2009 and 2 in 2010. In 2009, many of the hospitalized children had an underlying chronic disease and a lower median age than those not hospitalized. Of the hospitalized patients, 78% had a chronic disease, primarily pneumopathy (48%). The main signs and symptoms of influenza were fever (97%), cough (76%), and dyspnea (59%). Complications occurred in 81% of the patients. The median length of hospitalization was five days; 27% of the patients required intensive care, and two died. In 2010, two patients were hospitalized with influenza A (H1N1): one infant with adenovirus co-infection who had received one previous H1N1 vaccine dose and presented with respiratory sequelae and a 2-month-old infant who had a hospital-acquired infection. An impressive reduction in hospital admissions was observed in 2010 when the vaccination campaign took place in Brazil.
Clinics. Faculdade de Medicina / USP, v. 67, n. 10, p. 1215-1218, 2012.