Performance and adaptation of poor children to school: the research pattern of CRPE-SP

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2014-09-11
Autores
Freitas, Marcos Cezar de
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Artigo
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Resumo
This article examines how Centro Regional de Pesquisas Educacionais de São Paulo (CRPE-SP – Sao Paulo Regional Center for Educational Research) addressed the issues of performance and adaptation of poor children to school. It focuses on the years 1956-1963 and devotes special attention to the expressions of Dante Moreira Leite and Luiz Pereira on the subject. The central argument is that the transformation of Sao Paulo city into a great metropolis became the articulating theme with which both authors investigated the performance and adaptation of school-age children, especially those identified as suburbanIII. A new urban culture challenged the school structure and, based on the legacy of Antonio Candido and Florestan Fernandes, such questions were investigated with a new pattern of research, which became the mark of CRPE-SP at that time. This new research pattern paved the way for new analytical resources to be mobilized to study the intelligence of children at school. The shortcomings of biological parameters for understanding the phenomenon of failure and its significant numbers were demonstrated. In addition to a new anthropological understanding about the interaction between the school culture and ways of living of the urban fringes, the research pattern established enriched the repertoire of sociological analyzes of the expansion in the number of school places in Sao Paulo city. For that sociology of education which then renewed, the strongly exclusionary nature of school failure was demonstrated in a masterly manner.
Descrição
Este artigo analisa como o Centro Regional de Pesquisas Educacionais de São Paulo (CRPE-SP) abordou os temas desempenho e adaptação da criança pobre à escola. O foco incide sobre os anos 1956-1963 e dedica especial atenção às manifestações de Dante Moreira Leite e de Luiz Pereira a respeito do assunto. O argumento central é o de que a transformação da cidade de São Paulo em grande metrópole tornou-se o tema articulador com o qual ambos os autores pesquisaram o desempenho e a adaptação de crianças em idade escolar, especialmente aquelas identificadas como suburbanas. Uma nova cultura urbana desafiava a estrutura da escola e, com base no legado de Antonio Candido e de Florestan Fernandes, tais questões foram investigadas com um novo padrão de pesquisa, que se tornou marca do CRPE-SP naquele momento. Esse novo padrão de pesquisa abriu espaço para que novos recursos analíticos fossem mobilizados para o estudo da inteligência da criança em situação escolar. Foram demonstradas as insuficiências dos parâmetros biológicos para a compreensão do fenômeno da reprovação, que tinha números expressivos. Para além de uma nova compreensão antropológica a respeito da interação entre a cultura escolar e os modos de viver das periferias urbanas, o padrão de pesquisa estabelecido enriqueceu o repertório de análises sociológicas sobre a expansão do número de vagas escolares na cidade de São Paulo. Para aquela sociologia da educação que então se renovava, o caráter fortemente excludente da reprovação escolar foi demonstrado de forma magistral. This article examines how Centro Regional de Pesquisas Educacionais de São Paulo (CRPE-SP – Sao Paulo Regional Center for Educational Research) addressed the issues of performance and adaptation of poor children to school. It focuses on the years 1956-1963 and devotes special attention to the expressions of Dante Moreira Leite and Luiz Pereira on the subject. The central argument is that the transformation of Sao Paulo city into a great metropolis became the articulating theme with which both authors investigated the performance and adaptation of school-age children, especially those identified as suburbanIII. A new urban culture challenged the school structure and, based on the legacy of Antonio Candido and Florestan Fernandes, such questions were investigated with a new pattern of research, which became the mark of CRPE-SP at that time. This new research pattern paved the way for new analytical resources to be mobilized to study the intelligence of children at school. The shortcomings of biological parameters for understanding the phenomenon of failure and its significant numbers were demonstrated. In addition to a new anthropological understanding about the interaction between the school culture and ways of living of the urban fringes, the research pattern established enriched the repertoire of sociological analyzes of the expansion in the number of school places in Sao Paulo city. For that sociology of education which then renewed, the strongly exclusionary nature of school failure was demonstrated in a masterly manner.
Citação
FREITAS, M.C. Performance and adaptation of poor children to school: the research pattern of CRPE-SP. Educ. Pesqui., São Paulo, v. 40, n. 3, p. 683-698, jul/set. 2014