Vitamin D deficiency and seasonal variation over the years in So Paulo, Brazil

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Eloi, Marina [UNIFESP]
Horvath, Daniela Vargas [UNIFESP]
Szejnfeld, Vera Lucia [UNIFESP]
Ortega, João Carlos [UNIFESP]
Rocha, D. A. C.
Szejnfeld, Jacob [UNIFESP]
Castro, Charlles Heldan de Moura [UNIFESP]
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Brazil is a tropical/subtropical geographic area with elevated ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We report very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a large database of Brazilian subjects and show seasonal and reciprocal relationship between vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) over the years in this tropical area. We aim to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, characterize the temporal relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) and intact PTH (iPTH) according to seasons, and investigate potential associations between 25(OH)D levels and extra-skeletal outcomes in a Brazilian population. We retrospectively determined population weekly mean concentrations of unpaired 25(OH)D and iPTH using 39,004 laboratory results of Brazilian individuals of both genders aged 2 to 95 years. The 25(OH)D and iPTH distributions were normalized, and the means fit with a sinusoidal function. Potential associations between 25(OH)D serum levels and inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, HbA1c and Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA) were examined. Of the samples, 33.9 % had 25(OH)D serum concentrations lower than 20 ng/mL, while the vast majority (70.7 %) were found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient (< 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher during the winter as compared to the summer (38.4 % < 20 ng/mL and 75.5 % < 30 ng/mL versus 23.3 % < 20 ng/mL and 62.5 % < 30 ng/mL, respectively
p < 0.001). Seasonal variation was observed for both 25(OH)D and iPTH. 25(OH)D peaks occurred in March and troughs in September. iPTH levels showed an inverted pattern of peaks and troughs with a delay of 1 +/- 5 week. 25(OH)D was significantly associated with inflammatory markers but not with glucose homeostasis. A sinusoidal interrelationship has been detected between vitamin D and PTH in this tropical population. A large percentage of the individuals showed vitamin D deficiency. Public health strategies are needed to better understand and manage this very high and apparently contradictory prevalence of vitamin D deficiency.
Osteoporosis International. London, v. 27, n. 12, p. 3449-3456, 2016.