Regional differences in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a multi center study in Brazil

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Drummond, Karla Rezende Guerra
Malerbi, Fernando Korn [UNIFESP]
Morales, Paulo Henrique [UNIFESP]
Mattos, Tessa Cerqueira Lemos
Pinheiro, Andre Araujo
Mallmann, Felipe
Perez, Ricardo Vessoni
Leal, Franz Schubert Lopes
Melo, Laura Gomes Nunes de
Gomes, Marilia Brito
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Background: Diabetic retinopathy has a significant impact in every healthcare system. Despite that fact, there are few accurate estimates in the prevalence of DR in Brazil's different geographic regions, particularly proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema. This study aims to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Brazil's five continental regions and its determinant factors. Methods: This multi center, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted between August 2011 and December 2014, included patients with type 1 diabetes from the 5 Brazilian geographic regions (South, Southeast, North, Northeast and Midwest). During a clinical visit, a structured questionnaire was applied, blood sampling was collected and each patient underwent mydriatic binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy evaluation. Results: Data was obtained from 1644 patients, aged 30.2 +/- 12 years (56.1% female, 54.4% Caucasian), with a diabetes duration of 15.5 +/- 9.3 years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 242 (36.1%) in the Southeast, 102 (42.9%) in the South, 183 (29.9%) in the North and Northeast and 54 (41.7%) in the Midwest. Multinomial regression showed no difference in the prevalence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in each geographic region, although, prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.022), and diabetic macular edema (p = 0.003) was higher in the Midwest. Stepwise analyses reviled duration of diabetes, level of HbA1c and hypertension as independent variables. Conclusions: The prevalence of non proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes was no different between each geographic region of Brazil. The Midwest presented higher prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Duration of DM and glycemic control is of central importance to all. Hypertension is another fundamental factor to every region, at special in the South and Southeast. Glycemic control and patients in social and economic vulnerability deserves special attention in the North and Northeast of Brazil.
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. London, v. 10, p. -, 2018.