Caloric compensation in preschool children: Relationships with body mass and differences by food category

Caloric compensation in preschool children: Relationships with body mass and differences by food category

Author Carnell, S. Google Scholar
Benson, L. Google Scholar
Gibson, E. L. Google Scholar
Mais, L. A. Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Warkentin, S. Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Abstract Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs. 200 kcal]). For Test B, the preloads varied substantially in both macronutrient composition and learned gustatory cues to caloric content (200 ml water [0 kcal] vs. 200 ml strawberry milkshake [200 kcal]). Each preload was followed 30 min later by a multi-item ad-libitum meal containing junk foods (chocolate cookies, cheese-flavored crackers) and core foods (fruits and vegetables, bread rolls, protein foods). Testing took place at the children's own school under normal lunch-time conditions. Children were weighed and measured. Caloric compensation occurred in both tests, in terms of total, junk and core food intake (RMANOVA, all p < 0.01). Higher BMI z scores were associated with greater average caloric compensation (r = -0.26

p < 0.05), such that overweight/obese children showed least compensation (41%), children over the 50th centile the next least (59%), and children under the 50th centile (80%) the most. For Test A only, obese/overweight children compensated less well than normal weight children in terms of junk food intake (RMANOVA preload-by-weight group interaction p < 0.05), with no significant effect for core foods. Our results suggest that caloric compensation is consistently poorer in heavier children, and that overweight/obese children's preferences for junk foods may overwhelm intake regulation mechanisms within meals containing those foods. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords Food choice
High calorie
Body weight
Language English
Sponsor National Institute of Diabetes and Ingestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health (OD)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Níel Superior (CAPES)
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Grant number NIDDK: R00DK088360
OD: U54HD070725
Date 2017
Published in Appetite. London, v. 116, p. 82-89, 2017.
ISSN 0195-6663 (Sherpa/Romeo, impact factor)
Publisher Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd
Extent 82-89
Access rights Open access Open Access
Type Article
Web of Science ID WOS:000405972700010

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