Cytokine profile in response to Cytomegalovirus associated with immune recovery syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy

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Rios, L. S.
Vallochi, A. L.
Muccioli, Cristina [UNIFESP]
Campos-Machado, M. A.
Belfort, Rubens Junior [UNIFESP]
Rizzo, L. V.
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Background: Several changes have occurred in the presentation and course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS since the introduction of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). In some individuals who take HAART retinitis is kept under control even after the discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy. However, many of these patients develop intraocular inflammation. Uveitis, cataract, vitreitis, cystoid macular edema, epiretinal membrane, and disc edema may occur in patients with immune recovery syndrome (IRS).Methods: We evaluated the CMV-specific immune response in 55 patients by assessing CMV-specific lymphocyte proliferation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production and correlated it with the clinical outcome.Results: Our data suggest that control of CMV retinitis is associated with acquisition of cytotoxic and lymphoproliferative responses to CMV. In addition, the upsurge of macular and disc edema seems associated with the production of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-cc, whereas vitreitis is associated with the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma.Interpretation: The type of T-cell response that develops after HAART may determine the side effects of immune recovery and these effects are predictable based on the lymphokine profile produced by CMV-specific cells.
Canadian Journal Of Ophthalmology-journal Canadien D Ophtalmologie. Ottawa: Canadian Ophthal Soc, v. 40, n. 6, p. 711-720, 2005.