Common Mistakes in Manuscripts and How to Avoid Them

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Audige, Laurent
Ayeni, Olufemi R.
Bhandari, Mohit
Boyle, Brian W.
Briggs, Karen K.
Chan, Kevin
Chaney-Barclay, Kira
Huong T. Do
Ferretti Filho, Mario [UNIFESP]
Fu, Freddie H.
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The important task is to make the abstract concise yet still include the purpose, the key methods, results, and conclusions. It should not have any background, hypothesis, or discussion. The conclusions of the abstract and the text should be the same. Generally the abstract should be no more than 300 words. Do not include an introduction or discussion. All material should be focused on the purpose and the results. There is no need to describe the methods in great detail in the abstract. It will only make the abstract longer and destroy the flow. To destroy the flow is the worst mistake an author can make; the abstract will be more difficult to read and understand, and marginal readers will lose interest and stop reading right there. Finally, don't let the abstract fade out into nothing. The abstract should have straightforward and clinically relevant conclusions. And importantly, if it is basic science, you must give a clear picture of the relevance to clinicians. What do the results show and what is the clinical relevance?
Arthroscopy-the Journal Of Arthroscopic And Related Surgery. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co-elsevier Inc, v. 27, n. 4, p. S102-S112, 2011.