Ocular Involvement Following an Epidemic of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil
Silveira, Claudio [UNIFESP]
Muccioli, Cristina [UNIFESP]
Holland, Gary N.
Jones, Jeffrey L.
Paulo, Adam de [UNIFESP]
Belfort, Rubens [UNIFESP]
Is part ofAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
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PURPOSE: To investigate ocular involvement (prevalence, incidence, lesion characteristics) following postnatally. acquired infection with an atypical genotype of Toxoplasma gondii during a well-characterized 2001 outbreak in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil, attributed to a contaminated municipal reservoir.DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study.METHODS: We performed ophthalmic examinations on 290 of 454 individuals with serologic evidence of T gondii infection during the epidemic (positive IgM antibody tests). Prevalence of ophthalmic findings (intraocular inflammatory reactions [including transient, isolated retinal whitening without clinically apparent retinal necrosis] and necrotizing retinochoroiditis) at initial examination (baseline) and incidence of new findings during 10.5 months of follow-up were calculated. Cumulative risks of ophthalmic events were determined (Kaplan-Meier technique). RESULTS: Ocular involvement was present in 33 of 288 IgM individuals (11.5%) at baseline, including 17 with focal retinal whitening only and 13 with necrotizing retinochoroiditis. Incidence of new ocular involvement was estimated to be 1.73 events per 100 person-months (PM); cumulative risk at 10.5 months was 30.1%. Incident necrotizing retinochoroiditis was more common among those with focal retinal whitening at baseline (6.7/100 PM) than among those with no ocular involvement at baseline (1.11/100 PM; hazard ratio 6.07 [1.94-19.01]; P <.0001).CONCLUSIONS: Waterborne infection with an atypical genotype of T gondii is associated with substantial risk of ocular involvement. Lesions may continue to develop during the first year after infection. the increased risk of late necrotizing retinochoroiditis associated with isolated focal retinal whitening at presentation suggests the early presence of parasites in the retina, despite initial lack of observable retinal necrosis. (C) 2015 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CitationAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology. New York: Elsevier B.V., v. 159, n. 6, p. 1013-1021, 2015.
SponsorshipConselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
Research to Prevent Blindness (RPB), Inc, New York, New York
Skirball Foundation, New York, New York
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
RPB Physician-Scientist Award
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