Heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory coupling in obstructive sleep apnea: elderly compared with young

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2014-11-01
Autores
Trimer, Renata
Cabiddu, Ramona
Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosa
Stirbulov, Roberto
Poyares, Dalva [UNIFESP]
Guizilini, Solange [UNIFESP]
Bianchi, Anna M.
Costa, F. S. M.
Mendes, Renata Gonçalves
Delfino, A.
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Introduction: Aging is known to be a major contributing factor to the increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With aging, breathing undergoes significant changes during sleep, increasing the prevalence of apnea events, which affects heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC).Objectives: To compare HRV and CRC during wakefulness and sleep between young and elderly patients with and without OSA; and to determine whether the presence of OSA in young and elderly patients has a different impact on HRV and CRC during sleep.Methods: One hundred subjects, 50 young (mean age, 27 +/- 9; 20 normal and 30 OSA) and 50 elderly (mean age, 65 +/- 7; 20 normal and 30 OSA), underwent polysomnography. Spectral, cross-spectrum, and HRV parameters were analyzed during wakefulness and sleep.Results: the spectral analysis indicated that age affected HRV, with higher values of low frequency (P < 0.05) in elderly subjects during wakefulness and an interaction between the presence of OSA and age. OSA influenced HRV during sleep with lower LF/HF ratios during stage 2 (S2) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (P < 0.05), with an interaction between the presence of OSA and age in REM sleep. Elderly patients had significantly lower percent tachogram power coherent with respiration (%TPCR) during wakefulness (P < 0.05), and OSA led to lower %TPCR during S2.Conclusions: Age and OSA have an unfavorable impact on HRV, with reduced autonomic modulation during wakefulness, S2, and REM sleep. Age affects CRC during wakefulness and the presence of OSA affects CRC during sleep. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Sleep Medicine. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V., v. 15, n. 11, p. 1324-1331, 2014.
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