Clinical manifestations and experimental studies on the spine extract of the toadfish Porichthys porosissimus

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2014-08-01
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Lopes-Ferreira, Monica
Ramos, Anderson Daniel
Martins, Itamar Alves
Lima, Carla
Conceicao, Katia [UNIFESP]
Haddad, Vidal
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Toadfish are fish from the family Batrachoididae that are found in marine and brackish environment around the world. Among the toadfish, Porichthys genus is very common, where Porichthys porosissimus, also called Atlantic Midshipman is found in Southwest Atlantic, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to eastern Argentina. There was no consensus about the classification of the genus Porichthys as venomous fish because so far there are no published Studies regarding human envenomations and/or toxic activities induced in animal models. Herein, we report two conclusive envenoming in human beings caused by P porosissimus spines, with clear signs and symptoms that were very important for the development of our experimental studies. We demonstrated that the P. porosissimus spine extract, now venom, can induce nociceptive and edematogenic responses in mice as well an induction of an inflammatory response elicited by intravital microscopy and leukocyte migration. Finally, we identified in the P. porosissimus spine extract, through analysis by mass spectrometry, the presence of proteins previously detected in the venoms of other fish species and other venomous animals. We believe that based on our studies we will dismiss the non-venomous nature of this fish and clarify this issue. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Toxicon. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V., v. 86, p. 28-39, 2014.