Complex small supernumerary marker chromosomes - an update

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Liehr, Thomas
Cirkovic, Sanja
Lalic, Tanja
Guc-Scekic, Marija
Almeida, Cynthia de
Weimer, Joerg
Iourov, Ivan
Melaragno, Maria Isabel [UNIFESP]
Guilherme, Roberta S. [UNIFESP]
Stefanou, Eunice-Georgia G.
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Background: Complex small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) constitute one of the smallest subgroups of sSMC in general. Complex sSMC consist of chromosomal material derived from more than one chromosome; the best known representative of this group is the derivative chromosome 22 {der(22)t(11;22)} or Emanuel syndrome. in 2008 we speculated that complex sSMC could be part of an underestimated entity.Results: Here, the overall yet reported 412 complex sSMC are summarized. They constitute 8.4% of all yet in detail characterized sSMC cases. the majority of the complex sSMC is contributed by patients suffering from Emanuel syndrome (82%). Besides there are a der(22)t(8;22)(q24.1;q11.1) and a der(13)t(13;18)(q11;p11.21) or der(21)t(18;21) (p11.21;q11.1) = der(13 or 21)t(13 or 21;18) syndrome. the latter two represent another 2.6% and 2.2% of the complex sSMC-cases, respectively. the large majority of complex sSMC has a centric minute shape and derives from an acrocentric chromosome. Nonetheless, complex sSMC can involve material from each chromosomal origin. Most complex sSMC are inherited form a balanced translocation in one parent and are non-mosaic. Interestingly, there are hot spots for the chromosomal breakpoints involved.Conclusions: Complex sSMC need to be considered in diagnostics, especially in non-mosaic, centric minute shaped sSMC. As yet three complex-sSMC-associated syndromes are identified. As recurrent breakpoints in the complex sSMC were characterized, it is to be expected that more syndromes are identified in this subgroup of sSMC. Overall, complex sSMC emphasize once more the importance of detailed cytogenetic analyses, especially in patients with idiopathic mental retardation.
Molecular Cytogenetics. London: Biomed Central Ltd, v. 6, 6 p., 2013.