The chronic blockade of angiotensin I-converting enzyme eliminates the sex differences of serum cytokine levels of spontaneously hypertensive rats

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2013-02-01
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Dalpiaz, Polyana Lima Meireles
Lamas, Aline Zandonadi
Caliman, Izabela Facco
Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos de
Abreu, Glaucia Rodrigues de
Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro
Andrade, Tadeu Uggere
Alves, Márcio Fernando [UNIFESP]
Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic [UNIFESP]
Bissoli, Nazare Souza
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Sex hormones modulate the action of both cytokines and the renin-angiotensin system. However, the effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) on the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are unclear. We determined the relationship between ACE activity, cytokine levels and sex differences in SHR. Female (F) and male (M) SHR were divided into 4 experimental groups each (n = 7): sham + vehicle (SV), sham + enalapril (10 mg/kg body weight by gavage), castrated + vehicle, and castrated + enalapril. Treatment began 21 days after castration and continued for 30 days. Serum cytokine levels (ELISA) and ACE activity (fluorimetry) were measured. Male rats exhibited a higher serum ACE activity than female rats. Castration reduced serum ACE in males but did not affect it in females. Enalapril reduced serum ACE in all groups. IL-10 (FSV = 16.4 +/- 1.1 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 +/- 1.2 pg/mL), TNF-alpha (FSV = 16.6 +/- 1.2 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 +/- 1 pg/mL) and IL-6 (FSV = 10.3 +/- 0.2 pg/mL; MSV = 7.2 +/- 0.2 pg/mL) levels were higher in females than in males. Ovariectomy reduced all cytokine levels and orchiectomy reduced IL-6 but increased IL-10 concentrations in males. Castration eliminated the differences in all inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) between males and females. Enalapril increased IL-10 in all groups and reduced IL-6 in SV rats. in conclusion, serum ACE inhibition by enalapril eliminated the sexual dimorphisms of cytokine levels in SV animals, which suggests that enalapril exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.
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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. São Paulo: Assoc Bras Divulg Cientifica, v. 46, n. 2, p. 171-177, 2013.
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