Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: An integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses

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Fernandes, M. N.
Paulino, M. G.
Sakuragui, M. M.
Ramos, C. A.
Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra [UNIFESP]
Sadauskas-Henrique, H.
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Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. the surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. the organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aquatic Toxicology. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V., v. 126, p. 180-190, 2013.