Stress amplifies lung tissue mechanics, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by chronic inflammation

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Reis, Fabiana Gomes
Marques, Ricardo Henrique
Starling, Claudia Miranda
Almeida-Reis, Rafael
Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula
Cabido, Claudia Teixeira
Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz
Lancas, Tatiana
Dolhnikoff, Marisa
Martins, Milton de Arruda
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Background: Mechanisms linking behavioral stress and inflammation are poorly understood, mainly in distal lung tissue. Objective: We have investigated whether the forced swim stress (FS) could modulate lung tissue mechanics, iNOS, cytokines, oxidative stress activation, eosinophilic recruitment, and remodeling in guinea pigs (GP) with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Methods: the GP were exposed to ovalbumin or saline aerosols (2x/wk/4wks, OVA, and SAL). Twenty-four hours after the 4th inhalation, the GP were submitted to the FS protocol (5x/wk/2wks, SAL-S, and OVA-S). Seventy-two hours after the 7th inhalation, lung strips were cut and tissue resistance (Rt) and elastance (Et) were obtained (at baseline and after OVA and Ach challenge). Strips were submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results: the adrenals' weight, the serum cortisol, and the catecholamines were measured. There was an increase in IL-2, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma, iNOS, 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, and in %Rt and %Et after Ach challenge in the SAL-S group compared to the SAL one. the OVA-S group has had an increase in %Rt and %Et after the OVA challenge, in %Et after the Ach and in IL-4, 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, and actin compared to the OVA. Adrenal weight and cortisol serum were increased in stressed animals compared to nonstressed ones, and the catecholamines were unaltered. Conclusion & clinical relevance: Repeated stress has increased distal lung constriction, which was associated with an increase of actin, IL-4, and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels. Stress has also induced an activation of iNOS, cytokines, and oxidative stress pathways.
Experimental Lung Research. London: Informa Healthcare, v. 38, n. 7, p. 344-354, 2012.