Systematic Evaluation of the Upper Airway in the Adult Population of São Paulo, Brazil

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Stefanini, Renato [UNIFESP]
Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP]
Mattos Soares, Maria Claudia [UNIFESP]
Martinho Haddad, Fernanda Louise [UNIFESP]
Azeredo Bittencourt, Lia Rita [UNIFESP]
Santos-Silva, Rogerio [UNIFESP]
Gregório, Luiz Carlos [UNIFESP]
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Objectives. To study the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic symptoms and findings of physical examination of the upper airway (UA) of a representative sample of the adult population of São Paulo, Brazil, and the association between these findings.Study Design. Cross-sectional survey.Setting. Population sample.Methods. A total of 1101 randomly selected volunteers representing the adult population of São Paulo according to sex, age, and socioeconomic class were included in this study. Otorhinolaryngological evaluation included investigation of nasal complaints, physical examination of the UA, and a facial inspection.Results. A total of 993 volunteers (53.9% women), with a mean age of 41.8 +/- 0.89 years, underwent otorhinolaryngologic examination. the most prevalent symptoms were the following: symptoms suggestive of rhinitis (44.9%), snoring (42.8%), mouth breathing (39.3%), and nasal obstruction (33.3%). in physical examination, the most common findings were a web palate (redundant posterior pillar; 62.9%), septum deviation (56.9%), and inferior turbinate hypertrophy (37.7%). Significant associations were found between nasal obstruction and septum deviations, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, high-arched palate, and class II dental occlusion; between symptoms of rhinitis and inferior turbinate hypertrophy; and between snoring and obstructive deviated septum, modified Mallampatti grades III and IV, increased neck circumference, and age greater than or equal to 50 years.Conclusions. the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic symptoms and alterations in physical examination of the UA were high in the adult population of São Paulo, Brazil. the snoring and nasal symptoms were significantly associated with findings from UA physical examination and inspection of the facial skeleton.
Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery. London: Sage Publications Ltd, v. 146, n. 5, p. 757-763, 2012.