Apoptotic Cells Contribute to Melanoma Progression and This Effect is Partially Mediated by the Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor

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Lacerda Bachi, Andre Luis [UNIFESP]
Santos, Livia Caires dos [UNIFESP]
Nonogaki, Suely
Jancar, Sonia
Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas [UNIFESP]
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There is evidence that the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages, and that this is associated with anti-inflammatory phenotype. Our group has previously shown that coinjection of a large number of apoptotic cells can promote tumor growth from a subtumorigenic dose of melanoma cells. Here, we studied the involvement of the PAFR in the tumor growth promoting effect of apoptotic cells. A sub-tumorigenic dose of melanoma cells (Tm1) was coinjected with apoptotic Tm1 cells, subcutaneously in the flank of C57Bl/6 mice, and the volume was monitored for 30 days. Animals received the PAFR antagonists, WEB2170 or PCA4248 (5 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle, by peritumoral daily injection for 5 days. Results showed that PAFR antagonists significantly inhibited the tumor growth induced by the coinjection of a subtumorigenic dose of melanoma cells together with apoptotic cells. This was accompanied by inhibition of early neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Addition of (platelet-activating factor) to this system has no significant effect. PAFR antagonists did not affect the promoting effect of carrageenan. We suggest that the recognition of apoptotic cells by phagocytes leads to activation of PAFR pathways, resulting in a microenvironment response favorable to melanoma growth.
Mediators of Inflammation. New York: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 6 p., 2012.