The role of oxidative stress in renovascular hypertension

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Campos, Ruy R. [UNIFESP]
Oliveira-Sales, Elizabeth B. [UNIFESP]
Nishi, Erika E. [UNIFESP]
Boim, Mirian A. [UNIFESP]
Dolnikoff, Miriam S. [UNIFESP]
Bergamaschi, Cassia T. [UNIFESP]
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P>1. There is mounting evidence that increased oxidative stress and sympathetic nerve activity play important roles in renovascular hypertension. in the present review, we focus on the importance of oxidative stress in two distinct populations of neurons involved with cardiovascular regulation: those of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and those of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the maintenance of sympathoexcitation and hypertension in two kidney-one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Furthermore, the role of oxidative stress in the clipped kidney is also discussed.2. in the studies reviewed in this article, it was found that hypertension and renal sympathoexcitation in 2K1C rats were associated with an increase in Angiotensin II type one receptor (AT(1)) expression and in oxidative markers within the RVLM, PVN and in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats. Furthermore, acute or chronic anti-oxidant treatment decreased blood pressure and sympathetic activity, and improved the baroreflex control of heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity in 2K1C rats. Tempol or vitamin C administration in the RVLM, PVN or systemically all reduced blood pressure and renal sympathetic activity. Cardiovascular improvement in response to chronic anti-oxidant treatment was associated with a downregulation of AT(1) receptors, as well as oxidative markers in the central nuclei and clipped kidney.3. the data discussed in the present review support the idea that an increase in oxidative stress within the RVLM, PVN and in the ischaemic kidney plays a major role in the maintenance of sympathoexcitation and hypertension in 2K1C rats.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc, v. 38, n. 2, p. 144-152, 2011.