Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure
Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro
Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano
Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves
Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques [UNIFESP]
Günther, Wanda Maria Risso
Is part ofRevista de Saude Publica
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OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. the parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (0-5 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models.RESULTS: the results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31; 9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03) and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28) were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels.CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.
CitationRevista de Saude Publica. São Paulo: Revista de Saude Publica, v. 44, n. 5, p. 851-858, 2010.
KeywordsLead Poisoning, diagnosis
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