Microbiopsies of Surface Dental Enamel as a Tool to Measure Body Lead Burden

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Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro
Naozuka, Juliana
Magalhaes, Ana Carolina
Pera Garcia, Manuel Valentim de
Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano de
Rabelo Buzalaf, Marilia Afonso
Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques [UNIFESP]
Güenther, Wanda Maria Risso
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Lead (Pb) poisoning is preventable but continues to be a public health problem in several countries. Measuring Pb in the surface dental enamel (SDE) using microbiopsies is a rapid, safe, and painless procedure. There are different protocols to perform these microbiopsies, but the reliability of dental enamel lead levels (DELL) determination is dependent upon biopsy depth (BD). It is established that DELL decrease from the outermost superficial layer to the inner layer of dental enamel. the aim of this study was to determine DELL obtained by two different microbiopsy techniques on SDE termed protocol I and protocol II. Two consecutive enamel layers were removed from the same subject group (n = 138) for both protocols. Protocol I consisted of a biopsied site with a diameter of 4 mm after the application of 10 l HCl for 35 s. Protocol II involved a biopsied site of 1.6 mm diameter after application of 5 l HCl for 20 s. the results demonstrated that there were no significant differences for BD and DELL between homologous teeth using protocol I. However, there was a significant difference between DELL in the first and second layers using both protocols. Further, the BD in protocol II overestimated DELL values. in conclusion, SDE analyzed by microbiopsy is a reliable biomarker in protocol I, but the chemical method to calculate BD in protocol II appeared to be inadequate for measurement of DELL. Thus, DELL could not be compared among studies that used different methodologies for SDE microbiopsies.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-part A-current Issues. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis Inc, v. 73, n. 9, p. 627-636, 2010.