High Rate of Viral Identification and Coinfections in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis

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Nascimento, Milena Siciliano [UNIFESP]
Souza, Andrea Vieira de [UNIFESP]
Ferreira, Adriana Vada de Souza
Rodrigues, Joaquim Carlos [UNIFESP]
Abramovici, Sulim
Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ferreira da
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OBJECTIVES: To determine the viruses and risk factors associated with hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in infants with acute bronchiolitis.INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is a major cause of morbidity in infants. Widespread use of molecular-based methods has yielded new insights about its etiology, but the impact of viral etiologies on early outcomes is still unclear.METHODS: Seventy-seven infants with bronchiolitis who were under two years of age and visited an emergency unit were included. Using molecular-based methods, samples were tested for 12 different respiratory viruses. Logistic regression models were used to identify clinical and virological variables associated with the main endpoints: hospital admission and ICU admission.RESULTS: We identified at least one virus in 93.5% of patients, and coinfections were found in nearly 40% of patients. RSV was the most common pathogen (63.6%), followed by rhinovirus (39%). Identification of RSV was only associated with an increased risk of hospital admission in the univariate model. Younger age and enterovirus infection were associated with an increased risk of hospital admission, while atopy of a first-degree relative showed a protective effect. Prematurity was associated with an increased risk of admission to the ICU. Coinfections were not associated with worse outcomes.CONCLUSIONS: Molecular-based methods resulted in high rates of viral identification but did not change the significant role of RSV in acute bronchiolitis. Younger age and enterovirus infection were risk factors for hospital admission, while prematurity appeared to be a significant risk factor for admission to the ICU in acute viral bronchiolitis.
Clinics. São Paulo: Hospital Clinicas, Univ São Paulo, v. 65, n. 11, p. 1133-1137, 2010.