Biotechnological applications of brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins

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Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea
Silva, Paulo Henrique da
Chaim, Olga Meiri [UNIFESP]
Gremski, Luiza Helena [UNIFESP]
Paludo, Katia Sabrina [UNIFESP]
Silveira, Rafael Bertoni da
Gremski, Waldemiro
Mangili, Oldemir Carlos
Veiga, Silvio Sanches
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Loxoscelisin (the term used to define accidents by the bite of brown spiders) has been reported worldwide. Clinical manifestations following brown spider bites are frequently associated with skin degeneration, a massive inflammatory response at the injured region, intravascular hemolysis, platelet aggregation causing thrombocytopenia and renal disturbances. the mechanisms by which the venom exerts its noxious effects are currently under investigation. the whole venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched with low molecular mass proteins in the range of 5-40 kDa. Toxins including alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronidase, metalloproteases (astacin-like proteases), low molecular mass (5.6-7.9 kDa) insecticidal peptides and phospholipases-D (dermonecrotic toxins) have been identified in the venom. the purpose of the present review is to describe biotechnological applications of whole venom or some toxins, with especial emphasis upon molecular biology findings obtained in the last years. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biotechnology Advances. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V., v. 26, n. 3, p. 210-218, 2008.