Facial paresis in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis: Clinical and quantitative MRI-based evidence of widespread disease

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Lin, Katia [UNIFESP]
Carrete Junior, Henrique [UNIFESP]
Lin, Jaime [UNIFESP]
Leite de Oliveira, Pedro Alessandro
Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira [UNIFESP]
Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki [UNIFESP]
Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas [UNIFESP]
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Purpose: To assess the frequency and significance of facial paresis (FP) in a well-defined cohort of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients.Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with MRI findings consistent with mesial temporal sclerosis (NITS) and concordant electroclinical data underwent facial motor examination at rest, with voluntary expression, and with spontaneous smiling. Hippocampal, amygdaloid, and temporopolar (TP) volumetric measures were acquired. Thirty healthy subjects, matched according to age and sex, were taken as controls.Results: Central-type FP was found in 46 patients. in 41 (89%) of 46, it was visualized at rest, with voluntary and emotional expression characterizing true facial motor paresis. in 33 (72%) of 46 patients, FP was contralateral to the side of NITS. By using a 2-SD cutoff from tile mean of normal controls, we found reduction in TP volume ipsilateral to MTS in 61% of patients with FP and in 33% of those without (p = 0.01). Febrile seizures as initial precipitating injury (IPI) were observed in 34% of the patients and were classified as complex in 12 (26%) of 46 of those with FP and in five (9%) of 54 of those without (p = 0.02). the presence of FP was significantly associated with a shorter latent period and younger age at onset of habitual seizures, in particular, with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures.Conclusions: Facial paresis is a reliable lateralizing sign in MTLE and was associated with history of complex febrile seizures as IPI, younger age at onset of disease, and atrophy of temporal pole ipsilateral to NITS, indicating more widespread disease.
Epilepsia. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, v. 48, n. 8, p. 1491-1499, 2007.