Injury switches melatonin production source from endocrine (pineal) to paracrine (phagocytes) - melatonin in human colostrum and colostrum phagocytes
Pontes, Gerlandia N.
Cardoso, Elaine C.
Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda M. S.
Markus, Regina P.
Is part ofJournal of Pineal Research
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A large number of data show that melatonin has immunomodulatory properties and is produced by immunocompetent cells; also, some evidence suggests a 'feedback' of the activated immune system on the pineal gland. in this paper, we studied immune-pineal interactions in colostrum obtained from healthy puerperae and mothers with mastitis taking into account that, (a) melatonin levels in milk reflects pineal activity and (b) colostrum quiescent mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes from healthy mothers in culture are adequate for evaluating the ability of immunocompetent cells to produce melatonin. Here we compared the diurnal and nocturnal melatonin levels in colostrum from healthy puerperae and mothers with mastitis; this is a unique noninvasive model for determining pineal activity in the proinflammatory phase of a defense response. in addition, we determined the 'in vitro' production of melatonin by colostrum immunocompetent cells stimulated by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli or zymosan. Suppression of nocturnal melatonin rise in mothers with mastitis was highly correlated with increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. This result, interpreted taking into account the presence of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B in pineal gland, suggest that the proinflammatory cytokine can inhibit nocturnal pineal melatonin production. On the other hand, stimulated, but not quiescent, immunocompetent cells secreted in the colostrum produced melatonin in vitro. in addition, this production ceases after bacteria killing. These results suggest that during the response to an injury the production of melatonin can be transiently shifted from an endocrine (pineal) to a paracrine (immunocompetent cells) source.
CitationJournal of Pineal Research. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, v. 41, n. 2, p. 136-141, 2006.
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
tumor necrosis factor-alpha
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