Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for pathogens isolated from patients in Latin American medical centers with a diagnosis of pneumonia: Analysis of results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997)

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Sader, H. S.
Jones, R. N.
Gales, A. C.
Winokur, P.
Kugler, K. C.
Pfaller, M. A.
Doern, G. V.
SENTRY Latin Amer Study Grp
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Pneumonia is the mosi common fatal hospital-acquired infection, with attributable mortality rates ranging from 30 to 60%. Rapid initiation of optimal antimicrobial therapy is essential for obtaining treatment success. in this report the antimicrobial susceptibility of 556 strains from the lower respiratory tract were collected by the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997). These strains were isolated from hospitalized patients with pneumonia in 10 Latin American centers (6 countries) as part of this 68-center worldwide program. the isolates were susceptibility tested against more than 70 drugs (35 reported by) the reference broth microdilution method. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli phenotypically consistent with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production were characterized further by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the five most frequently isolated species mere (n/%): Pseudomonas aeruginosa (149/26.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (127/22.8%), Acinetobacter spp. (66/11.9%), Klebsiella spp. (56/10.1%), and Enterobacter spp. (40/7.2%). P. aeruginosa demonstrated high rates of resistance to a majority of the antimicrobial drugs tested. Carbapenems, amikacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam demonstrated the highest susceptibility rates (73.8-77.2%) against P. aeruginosa, however the lowest resistance rate was observed for cefepime (6.7%). Acinetobacter spp, also showed very high rates of resistance and the most active compounds were imipenem and meropenem (89.0% susceptibility) followed by the tetracyclines. Cephalosporin susceptibilities among Klebsiella spp. were low: cefoxitin, 73.0%; ceftazidime, 69.4%; and ceftriaxone, 65.9%. Approximately 37% and 28% of K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively, were considered ESBL producers based on NCCLS criteria. Ceftriaxone was active against only 52.5% of Enterobacter spp. isolates, whereas cefepime uns active against 90.0% of isolates (MIC50, less than or equal to 0.12 mu g/mL). Oxacillin resistance was detected in nearly 50% of S. aureus isolates. the most active drugs against S. aureus were vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, 1 mu g/mL). in summary, our study of pneumonias in Latin American medical centers demonstrated a greatly increased prevalence of Acinetobacter spp, and higher resistance rates among Gram-negative bacilli when compared with similar controlled studies from North America. (C) Elsevier Science Inc.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. New York: Elsevier B.V., v. 32, n. 4, p. 289-301, 1998.