Major increase in endopeptidase activity of human cathepsin B upon removal of occluding loop contacts
Nagler, D. K.
Storer, A. C.
Is part ofBiochemistry
MetadataShow full item record
The main feature distinguishing cathepsin B from other cysteine proteases of the papain family is the presence of a large insertion loop, termed the occluding loop, which occupies the S' subsites of the enzyme. the loop is held in place mainly by two contacts with the rest of the enzyme, involving residues His110 and Arg116 on the loop that form salt bridges with Asp22 and Asp224, respectively. the influence of this loop on the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) substrates. Wild-type cathepsin B displays poor activity against the substrates Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp and Abz-QVVAGA-EDDnp as compared to cathepsin L and papain. Appreciable increases in k(cat)/K-M were observed for cathepsin B containing the single mutations D22A, H110A, R116A, and D224A. the highest activity however is observed for mutants where both loop to enzyme contacts are disrupted. for the triple-mutant D22A/H110A/R116A, an optimum k(cat)/K-M value of 12 x 10(5) M-1 s(-1) was obtained for hydrolysis of Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, which corresponds to a 600-fold increase relative to wild-type cathepsin B and approaches the level of activity observed with cathepsin L or papain. By comparison, the mutations have little effect on the hydrolysis of Cbz-FR-MCA. the influence of the mutations on the pH dependency of activity also indicates that the complexity of pH activity profiles normally observed for cathepsin B is related to the presence of the occluding loop. the major increase in endopeptidase activity is attributed to an increase in loop ''flexibility'' and suggests that the occluding loop might move when an endopeptidase substrate binds to the enzyme, the possible contribution of these interactions in regulating endopeptidase activity and the implications for cathepsin B activity in physiological or pathological conditions are discussed.
CitationBiochemistry. Washington: Amer Chemical Soc, v. 36, n. 41, p. 12608-12615, 1997.
- Em verificação - Geral