ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSMISSION of HEPATITIS-B and HEPATITIS-C VIRUSES WITHIN the HEMODIALYSIS UNIT

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Data
1995-03-01
Autores
Neto, M. C.
Manzano, SIR
Canziani, M. E.
Silva, AEB
Cirenza, MLF
Sesso, R. D.
Ajzen, H.
Draibe, S. A.
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The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted in the dialysis setting through blood transfusions and environmental surfaces. Transfusion related hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is very well known, but only recently the environmental transmission of this virus was postulated, in order to study the prevalence, mechanisms of transmission, and the ALT patterns of HBV and HCV infections in hemodialysis and CAPD patients before the implementation of HBV vaccination and HCV screening in the blood bank, we conducted a study from January 1987 to January 1990, Sera from 185 hemodialysis and 124 CAPD patients were stored in this period and later analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV (second generation ELISA). the prevalence of any HBV marker was 55.7% (103/185) for hemodialysis patients and 31.5% (39/124) for CAPD patients (hemodialysis vs. CAPD, p < 0.001). the prevalence of positive anti-HCV was 35.1% (65/185) for hemodialysis and 33.9% (42/124) for CAPD patients (not significant). There was a significant association between HBV markers positivity and anti-HCV positivity. the multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed an association of the positivity of each virus with the duration of renal replacement therapy (RRT), number of previous blood transfusions, and past history of hemodialysis treatment. Thus, besides the transfusion-related transmission, hemodialysis environmental transmission may also occur for both viruses. the findings of a high prevalence of both viruses and evidence for environmental transmission in the dialysis setting are of major importance for the planning of future preventive measures.
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Artificial Organs. Cambridge: Blackwell Science Publ Inc Cambridge, v. 19, n. 3, p. 251-255, 1995.