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Title: Sporotrichosis between 1898 and 2017: The evolution of knowledge on a changeable disease and on emerging etiological agents.
Authors: Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria
Mora-Montes, Hector M.
Zhang, Yu
Nino-Vega, Gustavo
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias [UNIFESP]
Camargo, Zoilo Pires [UNIFESP]
Hoog, Sybren
Keywords: Sporothrix schenckii
Sporothrix brasiliensis
Sporothrix globosa
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Oxford Univ Press
Citation: Medical Mycology. Oxford, v. 56, Suppl. 1, p. S126-S143, 2018.
Abstract: The description of cryptic species with different pathogenic potentials has changed the perspectives on sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii causes a benign chronic subcutaneous mycosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis is highly virulent, and Sporothrix globosa mainly causes fixed cutaneous lesions. Furthermore, S. brasiliensis is the prevalent species related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Sources of infection, transmission, and distribution patterns also differ between species, and variability differs between species because of different degrees of clonality. The present review article will cover several aspects of the biology of clinically relevant agents of sporotrichosis, including epidemiological aspects of emerging species. Genomic information of Sporothrix spp. is also discussed. The cell wall is an essential structure for cell viability, interaction with the environment, and the host immune cells and contains several macromolecules involved in virulence. Due to its importance, aspects of glycosylation and cell wall polysaccharides are reviewed. Recent genome data and bioinformatics analyses helped to identify specific enzymes of the biosynthetic glycosylation routes, with no homologs in mammalian cells, which can be putative targets for development of antifungal drugs. A diversity of molecular techniques is available for the recognition of the clinically relevant species of Sporothrix. Furthermore, antigens identified as diagnostic markers and putative vaccine candidates are described. Cell-mediated immunity plays a key role in controlling infection, but Sporothrix species differ in their interaction with the host. The adaptive branch of the immune response is essential for appropriate control of infection.
ISSN: 1369-3786
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