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Title: Immunohistochemical expression of apoptosis and VEGF expression on random skin flaps in rats treated with hyperbaric oxygen and N-acetylcysteine
Authors: Rocha, Fernando Passos da
Fagundes, Djalma Jose [UNIFESP]
Rivoire, Henri Chaplin
Rech, Fabricio Valandro
Rocha Almeida, Marcelo Wilson
Pires, Jefferson Andre
Univ Catolica Pelotas
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Rio Grande Fed Fdn Univ FURG
Univ Reg Integrada Alto Uruguai & Missoes
Ivo Pitanguy Inst
Univ Fed Pelotas
Issue Date: 1-May-2011
Publisher: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Soc Inc
Citation: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine. Durham: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Soc Inc, v. 38, n. 3, p. 167-174, 2011.
Abstract: Objective: We sought to investigate the role of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and HBO(2) plus NAC (HN) on the immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3 and the vascular endothelial growing factor (VEGF) on random skin flaps of rats (modified McFarlane design).Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: GS (sham - n=8); GNAC (N-acetylcysteine - n=8); GHBO(2) (hyperbaric oxygen n=8); and GHN (HBO(2) plus NAC n=8). A rectangular skin flap (2 x 8 cm(2)) was dissected from the muscular dorsal layer, preserving a cranial pedicle. Polyethylene film was placed over the muscular layer, and an interrupted 3.0 nylon suture fixed the flap into the original place. On the eighth day, full-thickness biopsies (2 x 1 cm(2)) were collected from the proximal, middle and cranial areas of the skin flap, and in a site away from the flap labeled the control area.Results: The expression of VEGF in the skin layers (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous muscles) and vessels showed no significant difference among the groups. Apoptotic cells were significantly increased in the middle area of the flap in all groups. The major increase occurred in GS and GNAC. HBO(2) significantly decreased cleaved caspase-3-positive cell numbers in the skin layers and vessels of the three areas.Conclusions: HBO(2) showed a protective effect in the ischemic skin flap that was associated with reduced expression of apoptosis. GNAC and GHN were not associated with lower expression of apoptosis, and poor results were observed in GNAC. The combination of NAC and HBO(2) did not show better results than using them separately. The expression of VEGF in skin layers and vessels did not show a significant difference in our modified McFarlane flap model. The results suggest that the diffusion of oxygen through the interstitial space was the determining factor for the more favorable results of HBO(2) in the decrease of apoptosis expression.
ISSN: 1066-2936
Appears in Collections:Artigo

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