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Title: Role of the medulla oblongata in hypertension
Authors: Colombari, Eduardo [UNIFESP]
Sato, Monica Akemi [UNIFESP]
Cravo, Sergio Luiz [UNIFESP]
Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo [UNIFESP]
Campos, Ruy Ribeiro [UNIFESP]
Lopes, Oswaldo Ubriaco [UNIFESP]
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Keywords: brain
hypertension, experimental
sympathetic nervous system
nitric oxide
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2001
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Citation: Hypertension. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, v. 38, n. 3, p. 549-554, 2001.
Abstract: Brain pathways controlling arterial pressure are distributed throughout the neuraxis and are organized in topographically selective networks. In this brief review, we will focus on the medulla oblongata. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the primary site of cardiorespiratory reflex integration. It is well accepted that lesions or other perturbations in the NTS can result in elevations of arterial pressure (AP), with many of the associated features so commonly found in humans. However, recent studies have shown 2 distinct subpopulations of neurons within the NTS that can influence AP in opposite ways. Commissural NTS neurons located on the midline may contribute to maintenance of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), because small lesions in this area result in a very significant reduction in AP. Also involved in this blood pressure regulation network are 2 distinct regions of the ventrolateral medulla: caudal (CVLM) and rostral (RVLM). Neurons in CVLM are thought to receive baroreceptor input and to relay rostrally to control the activity of the RVLM. Projections from CVLM to RVLM are inhibitory, and a lack of their activity may contribute to development of hypertension. The RVLM is critical to the tonic and reflexive regulation of AP. In different experimental models of hypertension, RVLM neurons receive significantly more excitatory inputs. This results in enhanced sympathetic neuronal activity, which is essential for the development and maintenance of the hypertension.
ISSN: 0194-911X
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Appears in Collections:Artigo

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