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Title: Sequential randomised and double blind trial of promethazine prophylaxis against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom for bothrops snake bites
Authors: Fan, H. W.
Marcopito, Luiz Francisco [UNIFESP]
Cardoso, JLC
Franca, FOS
Malaque, CMS
Ferrari, R. A.
Theakston, RDG
Warrell, D. A.
Hosp Vital Brazil
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Univ Liverpool
Univ Oxford
Issue Date: 29-May-1999
Publisher: British Med Journal Publ Group
Citation: British Medical Journal. London: British Med Journal Publ Group, v. 318, n. 7196, p. 1451-1453, 1999.
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the efficacy of the H-1 antihistamine promethazine against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom.Design. Sequential randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.Setting Public hospital in a venom research institute, S (a) over tilde o Paulo, Brazil.Participants. 101 patients requiring antivenom treatment after being bitten by bothrops snakes.Intervention. Intramuscular injection of promethazine (25 mg for adults and 0.5/kg for children) or placebo given 15-20 min before starting intravenous infusion of antivenom.Main outcome measures. Incidence and severity of anaphylactic reactions occurring within 24 hours after antivenom.Results. Reactions occurred in 12 of 49 patients treated with promethazine (24%) and in 13 of 52 given placebo (25%); most were mild or moderate. Continuous sequential analysis indicated that the study could be interrupted at the 22nd untied pair, without preference for promethazine or placebo.Conclusion. Prophylaxis with promethazine does not prevent early reactions. Patients should be observed carefully during antivenom infusion and the subsequent few hours.
ISSN: 0959-8138
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