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Title: Synergism between toxin-gamma from Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus and veratridine in chromaffin cells
Authors: Conceição, Isaltino Marcelo da [UNIFESP]
Lebrun, Ivo
Cano-Abad, María
Gandia, Luis
Hernandez-Guijo, Jesus M.
Lopez, Manuela G.
Villarroya, Mercedes
Jurkiewicz, Aron [UNIFESP]
Garcia, Antonio G.
Inst Butantan
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Univ Autonoma Madrid
Univ Madrid
Keywords: sodium current
catecholamine release
calcium uptake
oscillations of cytosolic calcium
Issue Date: 1-Jun-1998
Publisher: Amer Physiological Soc
Citation: American Journal Of Physiology-cell Physiology. Bethesda: Amer Physiological Soc, v. 274, n. 6, p. C1745-C1754, 1998.
Abstract: Toxin-gamma (T gamma) from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom caused a concentration-and time-dependent increase in the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. T gamma was similar to 200-fold more potent than veratridine judged from EC50 values, although the maximal secretory efficacy of veratridine was 10-fold greater than that of T gamma (1.2 vs. 12 mu g/ml of catecholamine release). The combination of both toxins produced a synergistic effect that was particularly drastic at 5 mM extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](o)), when 30 mu M veratridine plus 0.45 mu M T gamma were used. T gamma (0.45 mu M) doubled the basal uptake of Ca-45(2+), whereas veratridine (100 mu M) tripled it. Again, a drastic synergism in enhancing Ca2+ entry was seen when T gamma and veratridine were combined; this was particularly pronounced at 5 mM [Ca2+](o). Veratridine induced oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in single fura 2-loaded cells without elevation of basal levels. In contrast, T gamma elevated basal [Ca2+](i) levels, causing only small oscillations. When added together, T gamma and veratridine elevated the basal levels of [Ca2+](i) without causing large oscillations. T gamma shifted the current-voltage (I-V) curve for Na+ channel current to the left. The combination of T gamma with veratridine increased the shift of the I-V curve to the left, resulting in a greater recruitment of Na+ channels at more hyperpolarizing potentials. This led to enhanced and more rapid accumulation of Na+ in the cell, causing cell depolarization, the opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, and Ca2+ entry and secretion.
ISSN: 0363-6143
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