Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/39012
Title: Plasmodium falciparum in the southeastern Atlantic forest: a challenge to the bromeliad-malaria paradigm?
Authors: Laporta, Gabriel Zorello
Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento [UNIFESP]
Levy, Debora
Fukuya, Linah Akemi
Porangaba de Oliveira, Tatiane Marques
Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira
Conn, Jan Evelyn
Massad, Eduardo
Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo
Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Wadsworth Ctr
SUNY Albany
Keywords: Atlantic forest
Anopheles
Forest fragment
Landscape
Malaria
Plasmodium falciparum
Transmission dynamics
Issue Date: 25-Apr-2015
Publisher: Biomed Central Ltd
Citation: Malaria Journal. London: Biomed Central Ltd, v. 14, 12 p., 2015.
Abstract: Background: Recently an unexpectedly high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum was found in asymptomatic blood donors living in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. the bromeliad-malaria paradigm assumes that transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae involves species of the subgenus Kerteszia of Anopheles and only a few cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria are reported annually in this region. the expectations of this paradigm are a low prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and a null prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if Plasmodium falciparum is actively circulating in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest remains.Methods: in this study, anophelines were collected with Shannon and CDC-light traps in seven distinct Atlantic forest landscapes over a 4-month period. Field-collected Anopheles mosquitoes were tested by real-time PCR assay in pools of ten, and then each mosquito from every positive pool, separately for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Genomic DNA of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax from positive anophelines was then amplified by traditional PCR for sequencing of the 18S ribosomal DNA to confirm Plasmodium species. Binomial probabilities were calculated to identify non-random results of the Plasmodium falciparum-infected anopheline findings.Results: the overall proportion of anophelines naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum was 4.4% (21/480) and only 0.8% (4/480) with Plasmodium vivax. All of the infected mosquitoes were found in intermixed natural and human-modified environments and most were Anopheles cruzii (22/25 = 88%, 18 Plasmodium falciparum plus 4 Plasmodium vivax). Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by sequencing in 76% (16/21) of positive mosquitoes, whereas Plasmodium vivax was confirmed in only 25% (1/4). Binomial probabilities suggest that Plasmodium falciparum actively circulates throughout the region and that there may be a threshold of the forested over human-modified environment ratio upon which the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected anophelines increases significantly.Conclusions: These results show that Plasmodium falciparum actively circulates, in higher proportion than Plasmodium vivax, among Anopheles mosquitoes of fragments of the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. This finding challenges the classical bromeliad-malaria paradigm, which considers Plasmodium vivax circulation as the driver for the dynamics of residual malaria transmission in this region.
URI: http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/39012
ISSN: 1475-2875
Other Identifiers: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0680-9
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