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Title: Evolutionary History of the PER3 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR): Idiosyncratic Aspect of Primate Molecular Circadian Clock
Authors: Sabino, Flávia Cal [UNIFESP]
Ribeiro, Amanda Oliveira [UNIFESP]
Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP]
Torres, Laila Brito
Oliveira, Jose Americo
Mello, Luiz Eugenio Araujo de Moraes [UNIFESP]
Cavalcante, Jeferson Souza
Pedrazzoli, Mario
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Primate Natl Ctr IEC CENP
São Paulo State Univ
Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Issue Date: 15-Sep-2014
Publisher: Public Library Science
Citation: Plos One. San Francisco: Public Library Science, v. 9, n. 9, 6 p., 2014.
Abstract: The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals. the analysis of the results has revealed that the PER3 VNTR occurs exclusively in simiiforme primates and that the number of copies of the primitive unit ranges from 2 to 11 across different primate species. Two transposable elements surrounding the 18th exon of PER3 were found in primates with published genome sequences, including the tarsiiforme Tarsius syrichta, which lacks the VNTR. These results suggest that this VNTR may have evolved in a common ancestor of the simiiforme branch and that the evolutionary copy number differentiation of this VNTR may be associated with primate simiiformes sleep and circadian phenotype patterns.
ISSN: 1932-6203
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