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Title: Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Authors: Salum, G. A.
Sergeant, J.
Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.
Vandekerckhove, J.
Gadelha, A. [UNIFESP]
Pan, P. M. [UNIFESP]
Moriyama, T. S. [UNIFESP]
Graeff-Martins, A. S.
Alvarenga, P. Gomes de
Rosario, M. C. do [UNIFESP]
Manfro, G. G.
Polanczyk, G.
Rohde, L. A. P.
Natl Inst Dev Psychiat Children & Adolescents CN
Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul
Vrije Univ Amsterdam
Univ Southampton
Univ Ghent
Univ Calif
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Keywords: ADHD
conduct disorder
oppositional defiant disorder
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2014
Publisher: Cambridge Univ Press
Citation: Psychological Medicine. New York: Cambridge Univ Press, v. 44, n. 3, p. 617-631, 2014.
Abstract: Background Both inhibitory-based executive functioning (IB-EF) and basic information processing (BIP) deficits are found in clinic-referred attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples. However, it remains to be determined whether: (1) such deficits occur in non-referred samples of ADHD; (2) they are specific to ADHD; (3) the co-morbidity between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) has additive or interactive effects; and (4) IB-EF deficits are primary in ADHD or are due to BIP deficits.Method We assessed 704 subjects (age 6-12 years) from a non-referred sample using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and classified them into five groups: typical developing controls (TDC; n=378), Fear disorders (n=90), Distress disorders (n=57), ADHD (n=100), ODD/CD (n=40) and ADHD+ODD/CD (n=39). We evaluated neurocognitive performance with a Two-Choice Reaction Time Task (2C-RT), a Conflict Control Task (CCT) and a Go/No-Go (GNG) task. We used a diffusion model (DM) to decompose BIP into processing efficiency, speed-accuracy trade-off and encoding/motor function along with variability parameters.Results Poorer processing efficiency was found to be specific to ADHD. Faster encoding/motor function differentiated ADHD from TDC and from fear/distress whereas a more cautious (not impulsive) response style differentiated ADHD from both TDC and ODD/CD. the co-morbidity between ADHD and ODD/CD reflected only additive effects. All ADHD-related IB-EF classical effects were fully moderated by deficits in BIP.Conclusions Our findings challenge the IB-EF hypothesis for ADHD and underscore the importance of processing efficiency as the key specific mechanism for ADHD pathophysiology.
ISSN: 0033-2917
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