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Title: Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis
Authors: Desjardins, Christopher A.
Champion, Mia D.
Holder, Jason W.
Muszewska, Anna
Goldberg, Jonathan
Bailao, Alexandre M.
Brigido, Marcelo Macedo
Silva Ferreira, Marcia Eliana da
Garcia, Ana Maria
Grynberg, Marcin
Gujja, Sharvari
Heiman, David I.
Henn, Matthew R.
Kodira, Chinnappa D.
Leon-Narvaez, Henry
Longo, Larissa V. G. [UNIFESP]
Ma, Li-Jun
Malavazi, Iran
Matsuo, Alisson L. [UNIFESP]
Morais, Flavia V. [UNIFESP]
Pereira, Maristela
Rodriguez-Brito, Sabrina
Sakthikumar, Sharadha
Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.
Sykes, Sean M.
Teixeira, Marcus Melo
Vallejo, Milene C. [UNIFESP]
Machado Telles Walter, Maria Emilia
Yandava, Chandri
Young, Sarah
Zeng, Qiandong
Zucker, Jeremy
Felipe, Maria Sueli
Goldman, Gustavo H.
Haas, Brian J.
McEwen, Juan G.
Nino-Vega, Gustavo
Puccia, Rosana [UNIFESP]
San-Blas, Gioconda
Almeida Soares, Celia Maria de
Birren, Bruce W.
Cuomo, Christina A.
Broad Inst MIT & Harvard
Polish Acad Sci
Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG)
Universidade de Brasília (UnB)
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Corp Invest Biol
Inst Venezolano Invest Cient
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Univ Vale Paraiba
Lab Nacl Ciencia & Tecnol Bioetanol CTBE
Univ Antioquia
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2011
Publisher: Public Library Science
Citation: Plos Genetics. San Francisco: Public Library Science, v. 7, n. 10, 16 p., 2011.
Abstract: Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. in addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts.
ISSN: 1553-7404
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