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Title: Toxicological considerations for intravitreal drugs
Authors: Penha, Fernando M. [UNIFESP]
Rodrigues, Eduardo B. [UNIFESP]
Furlani, Bruno A. [UNIFESP]
Dib, Eduardo [UNIFESP]
Melo, Gustavo B. [UNIFESP]
Farah, Michel E. [UNIFESP]
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Keywords: bevacizumab
monoclonal antibodies
retinal pharmacotherapy
tumor necrosis factor
vascular endothelial growth factor
Issue Date: 1-Aug-2011
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Citation: Expert Opinion On Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. London: Informa Healthcare, v. 7, n. 8, p. 1021-1034, 2011.
Abstract: Introduction: Intravitreal injections are a very common procedure and are the most effective route of drug delivery to the retina. There are currently several drugs available and even more are in development; therefore, safety is a very important concern.Areas covered: the toxicological considerations of the most common drugs used for intravitreal pharmacotherapy such as anti-VEGFs, corticosteroids and antibiotics. Emerging agents such as anti-TNFs, VEGF-trap and kinase inhibitors are also discussed. An assessment of the efficacy and safety issues of the most relevant drugs including bevacizumab, ranibizumab and triamcinolone is presented.Expert opinion: the toxicology and safety profiles are available for several drugs that are either in use or will be available for intravitreal injections. Retinal pharmacotherapy is very effective for different retinal diseases; however safety is a very important issue when intravitreal injections are applied and the possibility of retinal toxicity should always be kept in mind. Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are effective for the therapy of wet-age-related macular degeneration and macular edema, while triamcinolone remains an alternative agent to treat secondary macular edema. It is important, as some of these drugs will be used for extended periods of time, that their long-term toxicological effects are better understood.
ISSN: 1742-5255
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