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Title: 1,4-Diamino-2-butanone, a wide-spectrum microbicide, yields reactive species by metal-catalyzed oxidation
Authors: Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira
Alves, Maria Julia Manso
Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques [UNIFESP]
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Keywords: 1,4-Diamino-2-butanone
Reactive oxygen species
Oxidative damage
Free radicals
Issue Date: 15-Jun-2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Free Radical Biology and Medicine. New York: Elsevier B.V., v. 50, n. 12, p. 1760-1770, 2011.
Abstract: The alpha-aminoketone 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB), a putrescine analogue, is highly toxic to various microorganisms, including Trypanosoma cruzi. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying DAB's cytotoxic properties. We report here that DAB (pK(a) 7.5 and 9.5) undergoes aerobic oxidation in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37 degrees C, catalyzed by Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions yielding NH(4)(+) ion, H(2)O(2), and 4-amino-2-oxobutanal (oxoDAB). OxoDAB, like methylglyoxal and other alpha-oxoaldehydes, is expected to cause protein aggregation and nucleobase lesions. Propagation of DAB oxidation by superoxide radical was confirmed by the inhibitory effect of added SOD (50 U ml(-1)) and stimulatory effect of xanthine/xanthine oxidase, a source of superoxide radical. EPR spin trapping studies with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO) revealed an adduct attributable to DMPO-HO(center dot), and those with alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone or 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulfonic acid, a six-line adduct assignable to a DAB(center dot) resonant enoyl radical adduct. Added horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and bovine apo-transferrin underwent oxidative changes in tryptophan residues in the presence of 1.0-10 mM DAB. Iron release from HoSF was observed as well. Assays performed with fluorescein-encapsulated liposomes of cardiolipin and phosphatidylcholine (20:80) incubated with DAB resulted in extensive lipid peroxidation and consequent vesicle permeabilization. DAB (0-10 mM) administration to cultured LLC-MK2 epithelial cells caused a decline in cell viability, which was inhibited by preaddition of either catalase (4.5 mu M) or aminoguanidine (25 mM). Our findings support the hypothesis that DAB toxicity to several pathogenic microorganisms previously described may involve not only reported inhibition of polyamine metabolism but also DAB pro-oxidant activity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0891-5849
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