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Title: Short Communication: Intermediate Prevalence of HIV Type 1 Primary Antiretroviral Resistance in Ceara State, Northeast Brazil
Authors: Arruda, Erico
Simoes, Leda
Sucupira, Maria Cecilia [UNIFESP]
Medeiros, Melissa [UNIFESP]
Arruda, Eurico
Diaz, Ricardo S. [UNIFESP]
Lima, Aldo
Hosp Sao Jose Doencas Infecciosas
Lab Cent Estado
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Ctr Especialidades Med Jose de Alencar
Fac Med Ribeirao Preto
Univ Fed Ceara
Unidade Pesquisa Cin
Inst Biomed
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2011
Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
Citation: Aids Research and Human Retroviruses. New Rochelle: Mary Ann Liebert Inc, v. 27, n. 2, p. 153-156, 2011.
Abstract: Brazil is a large developing country where almost all FDA-licensed antiretrovirals are made available to almost 200,000 individuals under antiretroviral treatment. General primary HIV-1 resistance in Brazil is assumed to be low, but data are scarce, especially in the Northeast region. To evaluate the prevalence of primary HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance in the state of Ceara, Brazil, a cross-sectional prospective study of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected individuals was performed between May 2008 and May 2009. Genomic sequences of reverse transcriptase and protease regions of the pol gene of HIV-1 using PCR products were obtained. Mutations related to resistance to NRTI, NNRTI, and PI were evaluated according to the WHO mutation list for primary resistance surveillance, which excludes common polymorphisms. Seventy-four individuals were evaluated (50% male) with a median age 30 years; 55.4% were men who have sex with men. Median CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts were 418 and 960 cells/mm(3) and the median viral loads were 4.41 and 4.46 log(10) RNA copies/ml for individuals older and younger that 18 years, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of patients were symptomatic. Five patients (6.8%) were recently infected, as detected by the BED test. the mutations 41L, 67N, 215D, 219Q, 101E, and 103N in the RT and 321, 461, 54V, 82T, and 90M, in the PR were identified in 9.5% of samples, more frequently in HIV subtype B (85.1%). A significant level of primary HIV resistance was detected in urban Northeast Brazil, a region geographically distant from the more highly populated and wealthier areas of Southeast Brazil, and this emphasizes the need for monitoring resistance in the studied area.
ISSN: 0889-2229
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