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Title: Viral Load Predicts New World Health Organization Stage 3 and 4 Events in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Independent of CD4 T Lymphocyte Value
Authors: Oliveira, Ricardo
Krauss, Margot
Essama-Bibi, Suzanne
Hofer, Cristina
Harris, D. Robert
Tiraboschi, Adriana
Souza, Ricardo de
Marques, Heloisa
Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes [UNIFESP]
Abreu, Thalita
Della Negra, Marinella
Hazra, Rohan
Mofenson, Lynne M.
Siberry, George K.
NISDI Pediat Study Group 2010
Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth & Hum
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Inst Infectol Emilio Ribas
Univ Caxias Sul
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2010
Publisher: Univ Chicago Press
Citation: Clinical Infectious Diseases. Chicago: Univ Chicago Press, v. 51, n. 11, p. 1325-1333, 2010.
Abstract: Background. Many resource-limited countries rely on clinical and immunological monitoring without routine virological monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We assessed whether HIV load had independent predictive value in the presence of immunological and clinical data for the occurrence of new World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 events (hereafter, WHO events) among HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Latin America.Methods. the NISDI (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative) Pediatric Protocol is an observational cohort study designed to describe HIV-related outcomes among infected children. Eligibility criteria for this analysis included perinatal infection, age ! 15 years, and continuous HAART for >= 6 months. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess time to new WHO events as a function of immunological status, viral load, hemoglobin level, and potential confounding variables; laboratory tests repeated during the study were treated as time-varying predictors.Results. the mean duration of follow-up was 2.5 years; new WHO events occurred in 92 (15.8%) of 584 children. in proportional hazards modeling, most recent viral load 15000 copies/mL was associated with a nearly doubled risk of developing a WHO event (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.11; P = 033), even after adjustment for immunological status defined on the basis of CD4 T lymphocyte value, hemoglobin level, age, and body mass index.Conclusions. Routine virological monitoring using the WHO virological failure threshold of 5000 copies/mL adds independent predictive value to immunological and clinical assessments for identification of children receiving HAART who are at risk for significant HIV-related illness. To provide optimal care, periodic virological monitoring should be considered for all settings that provide HAART to children.
ISSN: 1058-4838
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