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Title: Cytotoxic effects of crotamine are mediated through lysosomal membrane permeabilization
Authors: Hayashi, Mirian A. F. [UNIFESP]
Nascimento, Fabio D. [UNIFESP]
Kerkis, Alexandre
Oliveira, Vitor [UNIFESP]
Oliveira, Eduardo B.
Pereira, Alexandre
Radis-Baptista, Gandhi
Nader, Helena B. [UNIFESP]
Yamane, Tetsuo
Kerkis, Irina
Tersariol, Ivarne L. S. [UNIFESP]
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Univ Mogi das Cruzes
Inst Butantan
Clin & Ctr Pesquisa Reprod Humana Roger Abdelmass
Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)
Keywords: Toxin
Cellular uptake
Cell-penetrating peptides
Highly proliferative cells
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2008
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Toxicon. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V., v. 52, n. 3, p. 508-517, 2008.
Abstract: Crotamine, one of the main toxic components of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, is a small non-enzymatic basic polypeptide, which causes hind limb paralysis and necrosis of muscle cells. it is well-known that several toxins penetrate into the cytosol through endocytosis, although in many cases the mechanism by which this occurs has not been fully investigated. Recently, using low concentrations of crotamine, we demonstrated the uptake of this toxin into actively proliferative cells via endocytosis, an event that ensues crotamine binding to cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Thus, crotamine can be regarded as a cell-penetrating peptide that, additionally, has been shown to be able of delivering some biologically active molecules into various cells. Herein, we investigate one of the mechanisms by which crotamine exerts its cytotoxic effects by following its uptake into highly proliferative cells, as CHO-K1 cells. Crotamine accumulation in the acidic endosomal/lysosomal vesicles was observed within 5 min after treatment of these cells with a cytotoxic concentration of this toxin, a value determined here by classical MTT assay. This accumulation caused disruption of lysosomal vesicles accompanied by the leakage of these vesicles contents into the cytosol. This lysosomal lysis also promoted the release of cysteine cathepsin and an increase of caspase activity in the cytoplasm. This chain of events seems to trigger a cell death process. Overall, our data suggest that lysosomes are the primary targets for crotamine cytotoxicity, a proposal corroborated by the correlation between both the kinetics and concentration-dependence of crotamine accumulation in lysosome compartments and the cytotoxic effects of this protein in CHO-K1 cells. Although crotamine is usually regarded as a myotoxin, we observed that intraperitoneal injection of fluorescently labeled crotamine in living mice led to significant and rapid accumulation of this toxin in the cell cytoplasm of several tissues, suggesting that crotamine cytotoxicity might not be restricted to muscle cells. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0041-0101
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