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Title: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two isoforms of dermonecrotic toxin from Loxosceles intermedia (Brown spider) venom gland
Authors: Silveira, Rafael Bertoni da
Pigozzo, Romine Bachmann
Chaim, Olga Meiri
Appel, Marcia Helena
Dreyfuss, Juliana Luporini
Toma, Leny
Mangili, Oldemir Carlos
Gremski, Waldemiro
Dietrich, Carl Peter
Nader, Helena B.
Veiga, Silvio Sanches
Univ Fed Parana
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Catholic Univ Parana
Keywords: Brown spider
dermonecrotic toxin
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2006
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Biochimie. Paris: Elsevier France-editions Scientifiques Medicales Elsevier, v. 88, n. 9, p. 1241-1253, 2006.
Abstract: Brown spider (Genus Loxosceles) bites are normally associated with necrotic skin degeneration, gravitational spreading, massive inflammatory response at injured region, platelet aggregation causing thrombocytopenia and renal disturbances. Brown spider venom has a complex composition containing many different toxins, of which a well-studied component is the dermonecrotic toxin. This toxin alone may produce necrotic lesions, inflammatory response and platelet aggregation. Biochemically, dermonecrotic toxin belongs to a family of toxins with 30-35 kDa characterized as sphingomyelinase-D. Here, employing a cDNA library of Loxosceles intermedia venom gland, we cloned and expressed two recombinant isoforms of the dennonecrotic toxin LiRecDT2 (1062 bp cDNA) and LiRecDT3 (1007 bp cDNA) that encode for signal peptides and complete mature proteins. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a structural relationship for these toxins compared to other members of family. Recombinant molecules were expressed as N-terminal His-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and were purified to homogeneity from cell lysates by Ni2+ chelating chromatography, resulting in proteins of 33.8 kDa for LiRecDT2 and 34.0 kDa for LiRecDT3. Additional evidence for related toxins containing sequence/epitopes identity comes from antigenic cross-reactivity using antibodies against crude venom toxins and antibodies raised with a purified dennonecrotic toxin. Recombinant toxins showed differential functionality in rabbits: LiRecDT2 caused a macroscopic lesion with gravitational spreading upon intradermal injection, while LiRecDT3 evoked transient swelling and erythema upon injection site. Light microscopic analysis of skin biopsies revealed edema, a collection of inflammatory cells in and around blood vessels and a proteinaceous network at the dermis. Moreover, differential functionality for recombinant toxins was also demonstrated by a high sphingomyelinase activity for LiRecDT2 and low activity for LiRecDT3 as well as greater in vitro platelet aggregation and blood vessel permeability induced by LiRecDT2 and residual activity for LiRecDT3. Cloning and expression of two recombinant dermonecrotic toxins demonstrate an intraspecific family of homologous toxins that act in synergism for deleterious activities of the venom and open possibilities for biotechnological applications for recombinant toxins as research tools for understanding the inflammatory response, vascular integrity and platelet aggregation modulators. (c) 2006 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0300-9084
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